Continuing our research in thinking about all collections objects as sets of data, we are applying some theoretical constructs to the real world, both to understand the nature and needs of data objects, and the capabilities of management, presentation and discovery systems.
Today we start by looking at a set of characteristics of data that will eventually become criteria for determining how and where to manage and deliver our data collections. These characteristics are sometimes inherent in the objects themselves, applied by the holding institution to the objects, or created when the objects are ingested into a repository or other management or presentation system.
Characteristics of Integrity
These characteristics are inherent in the data no matter how the institution is seeking to use or manage them. They are core to the definition of a preservable digital object, and were defined at the very beginning of the digital library age. See: “Preserving Digital Information” (1996) https://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub63watersgarrett.pdf
- Content: Stuctured bits
- Fixity: frozen as discrete objects
- Reference: having a predictable location
- Provenance: with a documented chain of custody
- Context: linked to related objects
If a digital object lacks a particular characteristic of integrity, it is not preservable, but that does not mean that we don’t manage it in some system or another.
Characteristics of the Curation Lifecycle
The digital curation lifecycle models how institutions mange their data over time. Rather than being inherent in the data itself, these characteristics are dependent upon the collection development goals of the institution, and subject to review and alteration. The characteristics below are related to digital preservation activities. This is exhaustively explained in the “Reference Model for and Open Archival Information System” https://public.ccsds.org/pubs/650x0m2.pdf.
- Bitstream maintenance
- Backup/Disaster recovery
- Format normalization
- Format migration
- Audit trail
- Error checking
Characteristics of Usability
Some of the characteristics of usability are effectively inherent, others are definable by the institution. The characteristics of Intellectual Openness, while not inherent in the data itself, are typically externally determined. The institution does not generally have the ability to alter this characteristic unilaterally. The characteristics of Interoperability and Reusability are inherent in the data when it is acquired, but may be changed by creating derivatives or though normalization, based on level of Intellectual Openness. The ideas of Interoperabilty and Reusability in digital libraries come from: A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections, 3rd ed. http://www.niso.org/publications/rp/framework3.pdf
- Intellectual Openness
- Restricted-by license or intellectual property
- Interoperability-the ability of one standards-based object to be used in another standards based system
- Reusability-The ability to re-use, alter, or modify the object, or any part of that object to create new information or knowledge. Reusability makes scholarship possible.
Next time we will examine how these characteristics relate to digital objects, and then after that, how those characteristics, along with institutional mission, help determine the systems and platforms that we could use to manage, preserve, and make available digital content from our repositories.